Description: E101 refers to Riboflavin and Riboflavin-5'-phosphate, both of which are forms of vitamin B2. Riboflavin is an essential nutrient required for various cellular processes, including energy production, the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, and the maintenance of normal skin and vision.
Riboflavin can be found in both plant and animal sources. Good plant sources of riboflavin include whole grains, fortified cereals, mushrooms, almonds, and leafy green vegetables. Animal sources include milk, cheese, eggs, liver, and certain types of fish. Riboflavin-5'-phosphate is a more bioavailable form of riboflavin and can be converted to riboflavin in the body.
As a food additive, riboflavin is used as a yellow-orange coloring agent and can be found in various food products, including beverages, cereals, dairy products, and dietary supplements. The use of riboflavin as a food additive is generally considered safe, and it is approved for use by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
The commercial production of riboflavin might involve microbial fermentation or chemical synthesis, which means that it may not be derived directly from animal sources. This makes riboflavin and riboflavin-5'-phosphate potentially suitable for vegetarians and vegans, depending on the production method.
There are generally no significant side effects associated with the consumption of riboflavin when taken in normal dietary amounts. Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, and any excess is typically excreted in the urine, which reduces the risk of toxicity. However, extremely high doses of riboflavin taken in supplement form might cause side effects such as diarrhea, an increase in urine production, or a yellow-orange discoloration of the urine.
Maximum Daily Intake:
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for riboflavin varies by age, sex, and life stage. Here are some general guidelines for daily intake:
Infants (0-6 months): 0.3 mg
Infants (7-12 months): 0.4 mg
Children (1-3 years): 0.5 mg
Children (4-8 years): 0.6 mg
Children (9-13 years): 0.9 mg
Males (14-18 years): 1.3 mg
Males (19+ years): 1.3 mg
Females (14-18 years): 1.0 mg
Females (19+ years): 1.1 mg
Pregnant women: 1.4 mg
Breastfeeding women: 1.6 mg
Since riboflavin can be found in both plant and animal sources, it generally does not pose any significant dietary restrictions. However, strict vegetarians and vegans should ensure that they consume enough riboflavin from plant-based sources or choose supplements that use a production method not derived from animal sources.
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